The biggest mistake a brewer can make is to spend time and money making a quality beer wort or wine must but fail to take the time to clean and sanitize their equipment. All kinds of surprises await the brewer who uses unclean equipment- bacterial infections, wild yeast ferments, gushing bottles, a plethora of off-flavors and aromas... The first step to consistent and predictable results is employing sanitary procedures.
First, it's important to understand that cleaning and sanitizing are two separate procedures, neither one difficult. Cleaning is the act of removing physical particulate matter from something, such as your fermenter. If you have, for example, dried yeast stuck on the sides of your fermenter after doing a ferment, use an appropriate cleaner such as Oxygen Brewery Wash, PBW, or OneStep to help break up the particulates and scrub the surface with a non-abrasive scrubber, brush, or towel. Dish soap is not recommended as soap residue can produce off-flavors and aromas in your product.
Used bottles often benefit from a cleaning as there may be dried yeast sediment or other material in the bottom. The best way to reduce your time and energy cleaning is to clean as soon as possible; rinse bottles out well immediately after emptying them and don't let dirty fermenters sit for long without cleaning. Once particulates dry, they are much harder to remove from surfaces.
Once your equipment is clean, you must sanitize it before subjecting your beer, wine, or other beverage to it. Sanitizing is killing 99.99% of all microorganisms on a surface. To do this, use a food-grade sanitizer such as IoStar or StarSan; bleach is not recommended as it is not food grade, may be difficult to remove from plastics, and trace amounts can produce off-flavors and aromas. Merely mix sanitizers to the recommended concentrations and make sure that the sanitizing solution thoroughly contacts all surfaces of any equipment that will come in contact with your beer or wine. This includes fermenters, airlocks, siphoning equipment, bottles, etc.
Sanitizing procedures should be done just prior to use. Sanitizing a week, day, or even hours prior to using the equipment does no good as it may become recontaminated by airborne yeasts and bacterias in that time period.
If this sounds complicated or like a lot of work, it really isn't. It is, however, absolutely necessary and should never be dismissed. Happy brewing!
Beer Wine Refractometer with ATC
Refractometers measure sugar in an aqueous solution. Because they require such a small sample, they are a great alternative to hydrometers, which require several ounces of liquid and a test tube. This refractometer features Automatic Temperature Correction and both Brix and Specific Gravity scales. These are great for measuring the sugar content...
15.5" long, with a solid metal base and easy-to-read 3-scale readout. Packaged, with instructions, in a tube with no hanger cap. Readings idealized at 60°F. Works for beer, wine, cider, mead, and mashes. Scales: Balling: 0-38% Potential ABV: 0-22% Specific Gravity: 0.990 - 1.170
Hydrometer Test Cylinder
Used to hold the sample for taking gravity or proof readings. Available in plastic or glass. NOTE: If proofing spirits, you MUST use glass; the plastic can't handle high octane.
Also called an alcoholmeter. This marvelous tool shows the proof of spirits. The presence of sugar will distort readings, so this is only for pure spirits and spirits blended with water (not juice or sugar, etc). Proof scale 0-200.