The biggest mistake a brewer can make is to spend time and money making a quality beer wort or wine must but fail to take the time to clean and sanitize their equipment. All kinds of surprises await the brewer who uses unclean equipment- bacterial infections, wild yeast ferments, gushing bottles, a plethora of off-flavors and aromas... The first step to consistent and predictable results is employing sanitary procedures.
First, it's important to understand that cleaning and sanitizing are two separate procedures, neither one difficult. Cleaning is the act of removing physical particulate matter from something, such as your fermenter. If you have, for example, dried yeast stuck on the sides of your fermenter after doing a ferment, use an appropriate cleaner such as Oxygen Brewery Wash, PBW, or OneStep to help break up the particulates and scrub the surface with a non-abrasive scrubber, brush, or towel. Dish soap is not recommended as soap residue can produce off-flavors and aromas in your product.
Used bottles often benefit from a cleaning as there may be dried yeast sediment or other material in the bottom. The best way to reduce your time and energy cleaning is to clean as soon as possible; rinse bottles out well immediately after emptying them and don't let dirty fermenters sit for long without cleaning. Once particulates dry, they are much harder to remove from surfaces.
Once your equipment is clean, you must sanitize it before subjecting your beer, wine, or other beverage to it. Sanitizing is killing 99.99% of all microorganisms on a surface. To do this, use a food-grade sanitizer such as IoStar or StarSan; bleach is not recommended as it is not food grade, may be difficult to remove from plastics, and trace amounts can produce off-flavors and aromas. Merely mix sanitizers to the recommended concentrations and make sure that the sanitizing solution thoroughly contacts all surfaces of any equipment that will come in contact with your beer or wine. This includes fermenters, airlocks, siphoning equipment, bottles, etc.
Sanitizing procedures should be done just prior to use. Sanitizing a week, day, or even hours prior to using the equipment does no good as it may become recontaminated by airborne yeasts and bacterias in that time period.
If this sounds complicated or like a lot of work, it really isn't. It is, however, absolutely necessary and should never be dismissed. Happy brewing!
Belgian Dark Candi Sugar (1 lb.)
Boosts alcohol; found in Dubbels, Bruins.
Belgian Light Candi Sugar (1 lb.)
Boosts alcohol; found in Saisons, Trippels
Used for clearing hazes from wine. Use 2 teaspoons to 1/2 cup warm water.
Calcium Carbonate (2oz)
Lowers acidity in wine. Use 1/2 teaspoon per gallon to lower acidity 0.1%. Use before fermentation.
Citric Acid (2 oz)
An easy way to control carbonation levels in your bottles. Add 3, 4, or 5, tablets to each 12oz bottle to achieve low, medium, or high carbonation levels, respectively. Approximately 200 tabs per bag.
For boosting gravity. Also used in cider production. Buy big and save!
Use as a dual stage clearing aid for beer, wine and spirits. Contains Chitosan and Kieselsol. Usually clears product within 24-48 hours. One pack treats up to 6 gallons.
Gelatin Finings (1oz)
Used for clearing beer or wine. Works best if used in conjunction with cold crashing (holding product at cold temperatures for several days).
Irish Moss (1 oz.)
Traditional natural kettle fining clarifier. Uses carageenan from seaweed to help precipitate excess proteins from the wort. Add 1 tsp/5gallons during last 15 minutes of the boil.
Isinglass is a common clarifier used in wine and beer production to help precipitate yeast, proteins, and polyphenols out of suspension. It is derived from fish swim bladders. One pack treats up to 6 gallons.
Lowers pH in mash. Add 1 teaspoon per cup of water. Can use up to 4 teaspoons.